If you want to try out Linux without creating another partition for it, then I would recommend you use Ubuntu. It is one of the most popular flavor of Linux. And the best part is, you can use it without giving it an extra partition.
All you have to do is to download a tiny tool called Wubi. This will help you to install Ubuntu within your current system. It is an officially supported Ubuntu Installer for Windows users. It'll download the necessary iso from the Internet and will install on your computer. Once the iso files are downloaded, all you have to do is provide a Username and Password for your Ubuntu and click Install.
Note that this may take some time as the file size is about 700MB. Once it is done, click Finish and reboot your computer. You'll see Ubuntu in the boot menu.